probiotics

Probiotics and acidosis in healthy children

A review of five randomised controlled trials from 2005 to 2017 with 544 healthy infants (one day to 12 months of age) showed that D-lactic acid producing probiotic bacteria and fermented infant formulas did not cause D-lactic acidosis in healthy children. The only reported cases of paediatric D-lactic acidosis were in children with short bowel …

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Probiotics and metabolic health in pregnancy

The effect of probiotics and metabolic health in pregnancy on glucose and lipid metabolism in healthy and obese pregnant women and women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) was evaluated in the meta-analysis of 10 randomised controlled trials. The significant correlations were found between probiotic supplementation and lower fasting serum insulin in healthy pregnant women (5 …

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A relationship between the gut microbiota and atherosclerosis

This study investigated the role of gut microbiota in atherosclerosis, a major cause of heart attack and stroke. 316 patients attending vascular prevention clinics in Canada were divided into three distinct phenotypes; (i) 98 patients with much less carotid plaque than predicted by traditional risk factors (Protected), (ii) 138 patients with plaque levels as predicted …

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Gut microbiome and brain

Bidirectional communication between the gut microbiota and brain plays a key role in maintaining brain health. This review focused on the mechanism of this interaction and modulatory role of the gut microbiota in brain-related pathological conditions, such as anxiety, depression, stress, and cognition.  In vitro, in vivo, and human studies providing evidence of the microbiota-gut-brain …

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Probiotics for the prevention of Clostridium difficile infection

The aim of this recent study was to find out whether the probiotic supplementation alongside antibiotic treatment will reduce the incidence of Clostridium difficile infection in adults and children. Individual data of 6851 participants from 18 published randomised controlled trials were included in the statistical analysis. 72.2% of the studies were conducted in adult hospitalised …

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Probiotics in the management of lower gastrointestinal symptoms

A systematic review of 70 studies investigating the use of probiotics in the management of lower gastrointestinal symptoms (IBS, antibiotic-associated diarrhoea, diarrhoea associated with Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy and other conditions) was performed, evidence was graded and recommendations for the physicians provided. Specific probiotics are beneficial in (i) reduction of total symptoms and abdominal pain …

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Probiotics for recurrent abdominal pain

The effect of dietary interventions for recurrent abdominal pain in 1453 children aged between 4 and 18 years was assessed in the Cochrane systematic review of 19 randomised controlled trials. Thirteen studies (1017 children) investigated the effect of probiotics compared to placebo, four studies (299 children) were trials of fibre-based interventions, one study (34 children) …

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Probiotics for the prevention of upper respiratory tract infections

The effect and safety of probiotics in the prevention of acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) in 3720 participants of all ages were assessed in the Cochrane systematic review of 12 randomised controlled trials. The results of the meta-analysis suggested that probiotics may be effective in reducing the number of participants with episodes of acute …

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