Human gut microbiota plays a key role in disease, nutrition and health. Antibiotics, medications and specific food ingredients influence the composition and diversity of the gut microbiota. Targeting the gut microbiome with probiotics, prebiotics or dietary fibre is beneficial for human health. The analysis of 22 systematic reviews (313 trials, 46 826 participants) showed that the probiotic supplementation is effective in preventing diarrhoea in children and adults, necrotising enterocolitis, acute upper respiratory tract infections, eczema in children, pulmonary exacerbations in children with cystic fibrosis, vulvovaginal candidiasis, alleviating depressive symptoms and improving cardiometabolic parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes.
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Reference: Valdes AM et al. Role of the gut microbiota in nutrition and health. BMJ 2018; 361: j2179