Gastrointestinal Tract

Probiotics and NAFLD

This review assessed the efficacy of probiotics, prebiotics or synbiotics in the management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). A total of 1309 patients with NAFLD from 25 studies (11 probiotic, 9 prebiotic and 7 synbiotic) were included in the meta-analysis. All three treatments combined significantly reduced BMI (-0.37 kg/m2), hepatic alanine aminotransferase (−6.9 U/L), aspartate …

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Gut microbiota in nutrition and health

Human gut microbiota plays a key role in disease, nutrition and health. Antibiotics, medications and specific food ingredients influence the composition and diversity of the gut microbiota. Targeting the gut microbiome with probiotics, prebiotics or dietary fibre is beneficial for human health. The analysis of 22 systematic reviews (313 trials, 46 826 participants) showed that …

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Upper respiratory symptoms in athletes

Upper tract respiratory symptoms such as sneezing, coughing, sore throat, runny and blocked nose are common among athletes during heavy training and competition. This review focuses on the aetiology of upper respiratory symptoms, mucosal immunity, the role of the gut and airway microbiomes and the use of probiotics and prebiotics to maintain athlete health.   …

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The MiBioGen consortium initiative

Recently, the MiBioGen (microbiome genome) consortium initiative was announced with the aim to gain a better understanding of the gut microbiome role as a mediator between genetic predisposition and health or disease in humans. The meta-analysis of human genome-microbiome association studies includes 18 population-level cohorts from countries in Europe, North America and Asia and 18,965 …

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Gut metabolome and abdominal obesity

The associations of metabolic products derived from gut microbes with age, obesity, host genetics and gut microbiome composition were investigated in the faecal samples of 786 predominantly female twins from the TwinsUK cohort (a national twin registry). The faecal metabolome was largely associated with gut microbial composition (67.7%) and only modestly influenced by host genetics …

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Gut microbiome development in neonates

Various factors influence the gut microbiome development in neonates during prenatal, perinatal and postnatal periods, including maternal diet and lifestyle, mode of birth, feeding, antibiotic use and length of gestation. The reciprocal relationship between gut microbiota and gastrointestinal tract development from in utero to postnatal life is discussed in more details.   Link: View the …

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A relationship between the gut microbiota and atherosclerosis

This study investigated the role of gut microbiota in atherosclerosis, a major cause of heart attack and stroke. 316 patients attending vascular prevention clinics in Canada were divided into three distinct phenotypes; (i) 98 patients with much less carotid plaque than predicted by traditional risk factors (Protected), (ii) 138 patients with plaque levels as predicted …

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