Adult health

Probiotics and NAFLD

This review assessed the efficacy of probiotics, prebiotics or synbiotics in the management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). A total of 1309 patients with NAFLD from 25 studies (11 probiotic, 9 prebiotic and 7 synbiotic) were included in the meta-analysis. All three treatments combined significantly reduced BMI (-0.37 kg/m2), hepatic alanine aminotransferase (−6.9 U/L), aspartate …

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Upper respiratory symptoms in athletes

Upper tract respiratory symptoms such as sneezing, coughing, sore throat, runny and blocked nose are common among athletes during heavy training and competition. This review focuses on the aetiology of upper respiratory symptoms, mucosal immunity, the role of the gut and airway microbiomes and the use of probiotics and prebiotics to maintain athlete health.   …

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Gut metabolome and abdominal obesity

The associations of metabolic products derived from gut microbes with age, obesity, host genetics and gut microbiome composition were investigated in the faecal samples of 786 predominantly female twins from the TwinsUK cohort (a national twin registry). The faecal metabolome was largely associated with gut microbial composition (67.7%) and only modestly influenced by host genetics …

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A relationship between the gut microbiota and atherosclerosis

This study investigated the role of gut microbiota in atherosclerosis, a major cause of heart attack and stroke. 316 patients attending vascular prevention clinics in Canada were divided into three distinct phenotypes; (i) 98 patients with much less carotid plaque than predicted by traditional risk factors (Protected), (ii) 138 patients with plaque levels as predicted …

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Gut microbiome and brain

Bidirectional communication between the gut microbiota and brain plays a key role in maintaining brain health. This review focused on the mechanism of this interaction and modulatory role of the gut microbiota in brain-related pathological conditions, such as anxiety, depression, stress, and cognition.  In vitro, in vivo, and human studies providing evidence of the microbiota-gut-brain …

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Probiotics for the prevention of Clostridium difficile infection

The aim of this recent study was to find out whether the probiotic supplementation alongside antibiotic treatment will reduce the incidence of Clostridium difficile infection in adults and children. Individual data of 6851 participants from 18 published randomised controlled trials were included in the statistical analysis. 72.2% of the studies were conducted in adult hospitalised …

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Probiotics in the management of lower gastrointestinal symptoms

A systematic review of 70 studies investigating the use of probiotics in the management of lower gastrointestinal symptoms (IBS, antibiotic-associated diarrhoea, diarrhoea associated with Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy and other conditions) was performed, evidence was graded and recommendations for the physicians provided. Specific probiotics are beneficial in (i) reduction of total symptoms and abdominal pain …

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Probiotics for the prevention of upper respiratory tract infections

The effect and safety of probiotics in the prevention of acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) in 3720 participants of all ages were assessed in the Cochrane systematic review of 12 randomised controlled trials. The results of the meta-analysis suggested that probiotics may be effective in reducing the number of participants with episodes of acute …

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