The effect of probiotics and metabolic health in pregnancy on glucose and lipid metabolism in healthy and obese pregnant women and women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) was evaluated in the meta-analysis of 10 randomised controlled trials.
The significant correlations were found between probiotic supplementation and lower fasting serum insulin in healthy pregnant women (5 studies, P < 0.00001) and pregnant women with GDM (4 studies, P=0.04). Similarly, probiotic supplementation was negatively associated with homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in healthy pregnant women (P=0.03) and pregnant women with GDM (P=0.02). No significant correlations were observed between probiotic supplementation and fasting plasma glucose.
Two studies assessed the effect of probiotics on lipid profiles in women with GDM and no significant effect was found on total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol or triacylglycerols levels. Only one study with 138 obese pregnant women was included in this review. There were no significant differences in the incidence of impaired glycemia.
In conclusion, the supplementation with probiotics during pregnancy has a beneficial effect on glucose metabolism among healthy pregnant women and women with gestational diabetes mellitus.
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Reference: Zheng J et al. The effects of probiotics supplementation on metabolic health in pregnant women: An evidence-based meta-analysis. PLoS One 2018; 13(5):e0197771.